Acetyl L-Carnitine – A bio-active form of the amino acid carnitine and one of the few substances that can help slow down the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, according to the University of California at San Diego. People with Alzheimer’s disease have significantly low levels of carnitine. Acetyl L-Carnitine is converted into acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is critical for learning and concentration. Because tissue carnitine levels decline with age, a supplement starting in mid-life is a good idea.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) – PS is a fat-soluble phospholipid that is an essential component of cell membranes. PS is found in high concentrations in the brain and acts as a building block for cells. PS stabilizes the membranes of brain cells and protects brain cell activity and limits cell deterioration. PS also participates in the transmissions of signals between brain cells. PS plays a crucial role in the brain because it influences the metabolism of several neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. A recent double-blind study found that PS significantly improved memory and enhanced mood in the elderly population. In other studies, PS has been shown to improve memory, concentration, word recall, and mood in middle-aged and elderly participants.
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) – ALA is a powerful, plant-based antioxidant that is critical for energy production in the brain and can boost glutathione, the brain’s most important antioxidant. Glutathione protects delicate brain cells from free radical attack. Glutathione levels decline with age and oral glutathione supplements are poorly absorbed, but taking ALA is an effective way of boosting your glutathione levels. ALA may also reverse age-related decline of glutathione levels in liver cells. An increase in glutathione also improves resistance to toxins, oxidants and mutagens.
N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) – NAC increases glutathione which protects your brain against free radical attack and inflammation. Glutathione production declines with age and oral supplements of glutathione are poorly absorbed. Taking NAC is one of the few ways you can increase your glutathione level. If you don’t have enough glutathione, the aging process will affect your brain much faster and cause more serious problems with memory, learning and concentration. Glutathione detoxifies a free radical found in the brain that is associated with the production of amyloid plaques. NAC is also a chelating agent and can help remove heavy metals from your body; exposure to mercury (from consuming fish or from teeth fillings) can damage brain cells and cause cognitive issues.
Ubiquinol CoQ10 – CoQ10 is most concentrated in organs that use the most energy, including the heart, liver, brain and kidneys. Because the brain is very active metabolically, it requires lots of CoQ10 to perform well. Ubiquinol CoQ10 is a powerful antioxidant that helps prevent cell damage from free radicals and reduces oxidative stress. Ubiquinol is naturally present in most human cells where it produces mitochondrial energy and enhances the effects of other antioxidants. Ubiquinol also: helps slow down the aging process, improves energy, reduces blood pressure, and decreases your chances of developing heart failure. Ubiquinol is the reduced, active antioxidant form of CoQ10 and has no known side effects. Our formula uses ubiquinol because it is natural and better absorbed than ubiquinone CoQ10. Ubiquinol is also more easily transported in the blood than ubiquinone CoQ10. CoQ10 needs to be converted into ubiquinol to be used by our bodies. Not only do our bodies produce less CoQ10 as we age but it also becomes more difficult for us to convert CoQ10 into ubiquinol. Unfortunately, most people over 40 cannot properly convert ubiquinone CoQ10 into ubiquinol.
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) – A large study found that people with the highest intake of niacin were much less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease. One way it may help is by lowering bad cholesterol and raising good cholesterol, because cholesterol levels are linked to Alzheimer’s disease. As a B vitamin, niacin is also important for helping to control homocysteine, an amino acid that can affect mental performance. The B vitamins are water-soluble and are not stored in your body, so they need to be constantly replenished. In addition, B vitamins are delicate and easily destroyed by microwaving, freezing, canning and heat.
Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) – One of the strongest antioxidants there is and able to protect cell membranes from free radical attack. Vitamin D boosts glutathione, another powerful antioxidant which protects your neurons from toxins in food, drugs, and the environment. Adequate levels will elevate your mood and improve your memory and other cognitive abilities. We use D3 instead of D2 (ergocalciferol) because D3 is about 87% more potent than D2 and is also converted into its active form 500% faster than D2. Vitamin D is one of the most common vitamin deficiencies in the United States. It is estimated that 70% of the US population is not getting adequate D. Another study found that only 10% of the US population had therapeutic levels of vitamin D3 in their systems. It can take several months for vitamin D supplementation to normalize levels.
Vitamin C – A water-soluble vitamin and antioxidant that is essential for good brain health because it protects your brain cells from free radical attack. There is a huge concentration of vitamin C in the fluid surrounding the neurons in the brain. Vitamin C also increases the effectiveness of vitamin E, another antioxidant that is critical for brain health.
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin) – B12 is essential for the formation and maintenance of myelin, the protective covering around brain cells that breaks down during the aging process. B12 also helps control homocysteine, an amino acid that can promote inflammation, kill brain cells, dull reflexes, lead to depression, and damage blood vessels that deliver blood to the brain. Research has shown a connection between elevated homocysteine and decreased mental performance. Methylcobalamin is needed for the synthesis of melatonin. Many common drugs (both over-the-counter and prescription) can deplete your B vitamins. Most B12 supplements use cyanocobalamin which is chemically synthesized. We use methylcobalamin because it is naturally occurring and has better absorption and effectiveness. It is also retained in higher amounts within your tissues. Methylcobalamin works in your brain but cyanocobalamin does not. B12 deficiency is a common problem for many older adults and vegetarians. As we age, the absorption of B12 from food declines. Alcohol consumption depletes B12 and any issues with GI function can lead to deficiency because B12 absorption depends on digestive enzymes and stomach acids being in balance.
Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (P5P or Bio-active vitamin B6) – B vitamins are crucial for brain health because they control homocysteine, an amino acid that can promote inflammation, kill brain cells, dull reflexes, lead to depression, and damage blood vessels that deliver blood to the brain. B6 is necessary for making serotonin and helps your body use dopamine, norepinephrine and GABA. We use P5P instead of vitamin B6 because P5P is the bio-active form of B6 and some people have trouble converting B6 into P5P. The B vitamins are water-soluble and are not stored in your body, so they need to be constantly replenished. Many substances can prevent B6 from being absorbed, including alcohol, coffee, birth control pills, food coloring and more. In addition, B vitamins are delicate and easily destroyed by microwaving, freezing, canning and heat.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) – One of the B vitamins and critical for controlling homocysteine levels. Research has shown that there is a clear link between elevated homocysteine and decreased mental performance. Vitamin B1 helps maintain a positive mental attitude, reduces irritability, and enhances learning abilities. The B vitamins are water-soluble and are not stored in your body, so they need to be constantly replenished. In addition, B vitamins are delicate and easily destroyed by microwaving, freezing, canning and heat.
Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol) – Vitamin E is a fat-soluble and powerful antioxidant that prevents brain aging by penetrating brain cell membranes and protecting the cells from free radical attack. The brain consists of more than 60 percent fat and vitamin E can access parts of the neurons that other antioxidants cannot because it is fat soluble. Vitamin E also reduces inflammation that contributes to brain degeneration. We use d-alpha tocopherol because it is better absorbed than the synthetic form, dl-alpha tocopherol.
Magnesium Bisglycinate Chelate – Magnesium is critical for the activation of nerve channels that are involved in synaptic plasticity. In other words, magnesium helps learning and memory by improving your brain’s synaptic functioning. Studies show that magnesium improves cognitive ability, and the improvement was equivalent to a brain that was nine years younger. The type of magnesium we use does not cause GI discomfort like the other types of magnesium do. We use bisglycinate because it is much more bio-active than other types of magnesium. Magnesium bisglycinate is four times more effective than citrate forms of magnesium. Bisglycinate passes directly into cells so people with poor digestion or absorption can still see beneficial results. It is one of only two forms of magnesium that can cross the blood-brain barrier. Magnesium assists with vitamin B6 metabolism, and taking magnesium together with B6 will improve the absorption of the magnesium. Magnesium deficiency is common due to our consumption of processed foods and the depletion of magnesium from agricultural soil and water. Caffeine and alcohol consumption also deplete magnesium. Very few people get the daily recommended intake of magnesium. It can take three months to see results of magnesium supplementation.
Quatrefolic (Vitamin B9/folic acid) – Folate/folic acid helps to control homocysteine, the amino acid that can promote inflammation, kill brain cells, dull reflexes, lead to depression, and damage blood vessels that deliver blood to the brain. Folic acid can be destroyed by microwave cooking, overcooking food, exposure to sunlight, or over processing food, so a supplement is an excellent idea. Quatrefolic is a Registered Trademark of Gnosis S.p.A, U.S. Patent No. 7,947,662. It is a natural, concentrated form of vitamin B9/folic acid that is found in high-quality supplements. Quatrefolic is easily and quickly absorbed because it is already in a form that your body can use. Other forms of folic acid are not biologically active and need to be converted multiple times in your body before they can be used. Some people lack the ability to convert folic acid and are at risk of developing a deficiency. Many medications decrease the level of folate/folic acid, including methotrexate, phenytoin, trimethoprim and birth control pills.